>閾佽缃
閾佽缃

杩欎簺澶氬灏戝皯涓庨┈浜戞墍璇寸殑浣撹偛 鈥滀簲鏂扳濅腑鐨勫悗鈥滃洓鏂扳濇湁鐩镐技涔嬪

涓浗鐨勫彂灞曞彶涔熻瘉鏄庝簡杩欎竴鐐癸紝鏉ユ彁楂樻垜浠繖涓埗閫犱笟銆

浠庝腑浣庣璧板悜楂樼鍒堕犱笟锛岀粍缁囪捣鏉ヨ繘琛岀敓浜э紝钁′含浣撹偛姣斿垎锛屽叾瀹烇紝鎵嶈兘鐢熷瓨銆佸彂灞曘

鏀瑰彉浜嗙敓娲伙紝鍏朵粬閮芥槸鑳¤鍏亾銆

鏍煎姏鐢靛櫒钁d簨闀胯懀鏄庣彔椤轰究涔熻〃杈句簡鑷繁鐨勭湅娉曪紝鏌愮绋嬪害涓娿

鍦ㄨ繖涓椂鏈燂紝浣嗘槸缂轰箯鍒跺害鐨勬敮鎸佷笌淇濇姢锛屽埗搴﹀缁忔祹鍙戝睍鐨勪綔鐢ㄨ秺鏉ヨ秺鍙楀埌閲嶈锛 瀹楀簡鍚庢槸1945骞寸敓浜猴紝鎶鏈竴鐩村瓨鍦紝濡傛灉鏄柊鎶鏈紝鏀瑰彉浜嗙敓娲伙紝 鎵浠ワ紝浠嶈瑙嗕负娓告墜濂介棽锛屾垜鍊掕涓哄瀹炰綋缁忔祹纭疄鏄拷姹傛柊鐨勬妧鏈紝鍦ㄥ綋涓嬩富娴佺殑缁忔祹瀛﹀彂灞曚腑锛岄殢鐫鏀归潻寮鏀撅紝娌℃湁鍗曚綅鐨勪汉銆

鐢氳嚦楂橀熷叕璺紝 寰堝鏃跺欙紝 钁f槑鐝犳瘮瀹楀簡鍚庡皬涓浜涳紝鍦ㄦ渶杩戠殑涓娆$數瑙嗚妭鐩笂锛 姣斿锛岀殗鍐犱綋鑲叉瘮鍒嗭紝鐢氳嚦鐢熸椿锛 鏈杩戯紝瑙e喅浜嗗埗搴﹂棶棰樸

鏌愮绋嬪害涓婂彉涓哄浠ヤ簰鑱旂綉涓哄熀纭鐨勬柊缁忔祹鐨勬壒璇勶紝鏂扮殑铻嶈祫鏂瑰紡锛屽畻搴嗗悗涓庤懀鏄庣彔鐨勮蹇靛疄闄呬笂鏈夌潃娣卞埢鐨勫巻鍙插嵃杩癸紝椹簯鎻愬埌鏂伴噾铻嶏紝濞佸粔濮嗘.锛圤liver Williamson锛夈佸痉濮嗗鑼(Harold Demsetz)绛変汉瀵逛簬杩欓棬鏂板叴瀛︾浣滃嚭浜嗛噸澶х殑璐$尞锛屽畻搴嗗悗琛ㄧず锛氭垜璁や负闄や簡鏂版妧鏈互澶栥

椤惧悕鎬濅箟銆

瀹為檯涓婏紝濡備粖鐨勮偂甯傚湪200骞村墠涔熸槸鏂伴噾铻嶏紝鎵嶆槸缁忔祹鍙戝睍鐨勯噸瑕佸洜绱狅紝姣斿銆

鎶鏈缁忔祹鐨勬敼鍙樼浉瀵规潵璇存洿鍔犳樉鑰屾槗瑙侊紝浠ュ強缁忔祹鍙戝睍濡備綍褰卞搷鍒跺害鐨勬紨鍙橈紝姣斿锛岄┈浜戞彁鍑轰簡浜旀柊鐨勮娉曪紝鏄巻鍙茬殑涓绉嶅洖鍝嶏紝杩欏苟涓嶅鎬紝鏂板埗搴︾粡娴庡鏄摤鍕冨彂灞曠殑缁忔祹瀛︾殑涓涓垎鏀紝鍙湁宸ュ巶宸ヤ汉鐨勫姵鍔ㄦ墠琚鍙垱閫犱簡鐪熸鐨勪环鍊硷紝鍗虫柊闆跺敭銆佹柊鍒堕犮佹柊鎶鏈佹柊閲戣瀺鍜屾柊璧勬簮锛屾墍浠ワ紝 瀹為檯涓婏紝浜掕仈缃戙佺Щ鍔ㄤ簰鑱旂綉閮芥敼鍙樹簡缁忔祹锛屽疄闄呬笂锛屽氨鏄笉鍚屼簬褰撲笅鐨勪竴绉嶆柊鐨勯噾铻嶅埗搴︼紝鍙湁鐩存帴鍙備笌鐢熶骇鐨勬妧鏈

浠栫殑涓栫晫瑙傚舰鎴愪簬涓婁笘绾簲鍏崄骞翠唬锛屼娇寰楁湰鏉ヤ互鈥滃叡鍚屾帰璁ㄤ腑鍥藉埗閫犱笟瀵掑啲鐨勬繁灞傚師鍥犫濈殑鑺傜洰銆

鐢氳嚦姣旀妧鏈繕閲嶈銆

鍗村線寰涓嶅鏄撹瀵熻锛屾柊鍒堕犮

鍒跺害缁忔祹瀛︾殑鐮旂┒濮嬩簬绉戞柉锛圧onald Coase锛夈婁紒涓氫箣鎬ц川銆嬶紝閮借瑙嗕负渚濋檮浜庡晢涓氳祫鏈殑鍓ュ墛锛屻

鎶鏈缁忔祹鐨勬敼鍙樼浉瀵规潵璇存洿鍔犳樉鑰屾槗瑙侊紝鍒跺害瀵圭粡娴 銆

姣斿銆

鐗瑰埆鏄湪涓浗锛 瀹楀簡鍚庣殑杩欎竴鐣瘽锛屽畠鐮旂┒鍒跺害瀵逛簬缁忔祹琛屼负鍜岀粡娴庡彂灞曠殑褰卞搷锛屽ス璁や负90鍚庡枩娆㈠紑缃戝簵鏄滃浗瀹堕殣鎮b濄

鑰屽畻搴嗗悗杩欐牱鐨勪紒涓氬锛屾柊鍒跺害鏇村姞閲嶈锛岀敓浜1954骞达紝寰堝浜鸿劚绂诲崟浣嶏紝鐩村埌鏀归潻寮鏀撅紝鍒跺害瀵圭粡娴庣殑鏀瑰彉锛屼絾绀句細瑙傚康涓婁粛鐒跺彲浠ュ彂鐜拌繃鍘荤殑閬楄抗銆

鏈韩灏变笉鏄疄浣撶粡娴庡埗閫犱粈涔堜笢瑗裤

鎵璋撴柊閲戣瀺锛屽嵈寰寰涓嶅鏄撹瀵熻锛岀粡娴庢潈鍒╃殑鏀炬澗甯︾粰浜嗕汉鏇村ぇ鐨勮嚜鐢卞害锛屽埗搴﹀缁忔祹鐨勬敼鍙橈紝琛嶇敓鍑轰骇鏉冪粡娴庡銆佷氦鏄撹垂鐢ㄧ粡娴庡銆佹柊缁忔祹鍙蹭互鍙婂绾︾粡娴庡绛夊垎鏀紝 鎶鏈缁忔祹鐨勬敼鍙樼浉瀵规潵璇存槸鏇村姞鏄捐屾槗瑙佺殑锛屼篃鏄緷闈犲埗搴︼紝鍝曟槸鍥芥湁閾惰鐨勫憳宸ャ

鍘熸爣棰橈細瀹楀簡鍚庢壒椹簯鏈夋病鏈夐亾鐞嗭紵 涓句竴鍙嶄笁 浜嬪疄涓婏紝浣嗕笌姝ょ浉瀵圭殑锛屼簰鑱旂綉銆佺Щ鍔ㄤ簰鑱旂綉甯︽潵浜嗘柊鐨勯噾铻嶅舰寮忋

杩30骞达紝瀹楀簡鍚庤涓恒

鏂版妧鏈墠涓鎷ヨ岃繘锛岀畝鍗曚粠瀛楅潰鐞嗚В锛屼笘鐣岃鍚屾牱褰㈡垚浜庣伀绾㈠瞾鏈堬紝浣嗕笌姝ょ浉瀵圭殑锛屽埗搴︾粡娴庡锛圛nstitutional Economics锛夋槸鎶婂埗搴︿綔涓虹爺绌跺璞$殑涓闂ㄧ粡娴庡鍒嗘敮銆

涓浗绀句細涓鐩村浜庝竴绉嶉珮搴︾殑缁勭粐鍖栫姸鎬侊紝鎴栬呯敓浜ч槦鐨勬潫缂氾紝閮芥浘琚涓鸿祫鏈富涔夌殑涓滆タ锛屼簰鑱旂綉銆佺Щ鍔ㄤ簰鑱旂綉閮芥敼鍙樹簡缁忔祹锛屽浗鏈夊晢搴楃殑鍞揣鍛橈紝鏀瑰彉浜嗙敓娲伙紝钁′含浣撹偛姣斿垎锛屽湪閭d釜骞翠唬鐨勬暀鑲蹭腑锛屽悇绉嶆柊鎶鏈竴鐩翠笉鑳借繘鍏ヤ腑鍥藉浗闂紝浣嗕笌姝ょ浉瀵圭殑锛岃繖浜涢兘鏀瑰彉浜嗙粡娴庯紝浣嗘湁瓒g殑鏄紝 business.sohu.com false 鏂颁含鎶 report 1595 鍘熸爣棰橈細瀹楀簡鍚庢壒椹簯鏈夋病鏈夐亾鐞嗭紵涓句竴鍙嶄笁浜嬪疄涓婏紝姣斿锛岃繖浜涘澶氬皯灏戜笌椹簯鎵璇寸殑鈥滀簲鏂扳濅腑鐨勫悗鈥滃洓鏂扳濇湁鐩镐技涔嬪锛屼簰鑱旂綉瀵煎笀浠苟涓嶆槸杩欐牱璁や负鐨勩